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These findings provided a new basis for the bioremediation of AA-contaminated soils. Given the detoxifying activity of NATs, the presence of NAT-encoding genes in many other fungi 15 and the fungal biomass in soils, our studies show that fungal bioremediation of AA represents a promising perspective. Further studies are needed for setting up bioremediation protocols in natural conditions and to assess the possible effects of other soil fungi on AA biodegradation.

Harms, H.

Mycoremediation (Bioremediation with Fungi) – Growing Mushrooms to Clean the Earth. A mini-review.

Untapped potential: exploiting fungi in bioremediation of hazardous chemicals. Nature Rev. Martins, M. An acetyltransferase conferring tolerance to toxic aromatic amine chemicals: molecular and functional studies.

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Kim, D. Cytochrome P activation of arylamines and heterocyclic amines. US National Toxicology Program.

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Ito, Y. Effects of 3,4-dichloroaniline on expression of ahr2 and cyp1a1 in zebrafish adults and embryos. C Toxicol. Lee, J. Microbial biodegradation and toxicity of vinclozolin and its toxic metabolite 3,5-dichloroaniline. Garcia-Galan, M. Talanta 81 , — Jin, C.

Eco-toxic effects of sulfadiazine sodium, sulfamonomethoxine sodium and enrofloxacin on wheat, Chinese cabbage and tomato. Ecotoxicology 18 , — Sartorius, M. Sulphadimethoxine inhibits Phaseolus vulgaris root growth and development of N-fixing nodules. Chemosphere 76 , — Khalid, A. Accelerated decolorization of structurally different azo dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains.

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The Future and Fungi - Ben Sharp - TEDxPerth

Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book Biological remediation methods have been successfully used to treat polluted soils. Show all. This book is suitable for graduate and undergraduate students dealing with the fungal bioremediations. Hopefully this information will stimulate research in greater and wider scope in microremediation process in the coming times. Should be available in all research laboratories dealing with mycology, community and university libraries. Pathways in the degradation of ciprofloxacin by different phyla of fungi according to Parshikov et al.

Although extracellular enzymes and reaction mechanisms play a predominant role in the degradation of PhACs, and the majority of studies have been focused on these enzymes, the internal mechanism of detoxification Phase I and Phase II mediated by the cytochrome P family CYP epoxidases and transferases in coordination or not with the extracellular system has been undervalued.

As several authors have stated, an intracellular system is also necessary for transforming different xenobiotics Guengerich, ; Moktali et al.

The hidden involvement of CYP in the transformation of PAHs, hormones, and aromatic compounds has been revealed in different studies Cerniglia, ; Syed et al. They are found in all kingdoms and domains of life and are classified according to amino acid sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationship. Basidiomycota species show a considerable number of CYP genes. Some species have around cytochrome P genes represented by 12 different groups of these enzymes Cajthaml, The comparison of fungal CYPomes with the currently sequenced fungal genomes indicates that fungi have abundant CYPs belonging to diverse families Chen et al.

In particular, analyses of the phylogenetic distribution of these clans, for example CYP52 Figure 3B , show that the evolutionary distances between basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are similar, indicating a homology in the sequences of the proteins of this clan, reflected in the universal well-characterized functions of the CYPs in both divisions. An example of this strong similarity between the CYPs of clan 52 is T.

In the same line, the CYP53 clan Figure 3C is present in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a similar phylogenetic distribution, although with more random divergent points. The study of the CYP distribution as well as genetic homology could shed light on the capability of different fungi to deal with PhACs and their potential for bioremediation purposes and therefore these findings could help to better design strategies for PhACs transformation.

Figure 3. Some fungal species related to the biodegradation of emerging contaminants are highlighted. The phylogenetic distribution is different in each case, depending on the alignments of proteins, according to the abundance of reported CYP in fungi central graph, A. Protein sequences were taken from the database UniProt Pundir et al.

Reaction mechanisms include Fenton reactions, with redox cycling of quinones being the most studied ones. In the fungus T. The combination of all of these mechanisms provides an integral view of the versatility for applying fungi. The mechanisms heterogeneity and the variety of species makes it difficult to involve just one single method for the elimination of ECs. Thus, the new approaches should consider more than one way to solve the problem and implement an efficient system by applying the appropriate strains of fungi, according to the intrinsic characteristics of the wastewater, and by integrating these approaches in the current wastewater treatment systems.

The Basidiomycota division of fungi is a group of macro- and microorganisms characterized by the formation of basidia, a bottle-shaped cell structure containing haploid and sexual basidiospores. During their life cycle, most Basidiomycota fungi pass between a dikaryotic state and diploid growth to asexual reproduction by conidia with the subsequent formation of basidiospores Alexopoulos et al. Due to their environmental relations, Basidiomycota fungi have developed and optimized different systems related to the cycling of carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as to ecosystem balance.

This provides them with a series of extracellular and intracellular mechanisms capable of interacting with heterogeneous substrates, mainly lignin derivatives Schmidt-Dannert, One of the most attractive reasons for the use of Basidiomycota fungi in the degradation of PhACs is the great variety of substrates that they can metabolize Maciel et al. The main mechanism in the degradation of PhACs and aromatic compounds by Basidiomycota is the use of the above-mentioned groups of extra- and intracellular oxidoreductases laccases, peroxidases, CYPs, etc.

In this context, several kinds of LME and fungal mediators have been studied in relation to the biodegradation of PhACs in the white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phlebia ochraceofulva, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Pleurotus ostreatus , and T. However, in all cases the participation of the CYP has a pivotal role on PhACs transformation, usually determined by indirect measurements with CYP inhibitors such as 1-aminobenzotriazole and piperonyl butoxide.

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White-Rot Fungi and their Enzymes as a Biotechnological Tool for Xenobiotic Bioremediation

The current approach of the treatment of PhACs in wastewater using this kind of fungi is the development of systems that could be implemented in real life by the design and improvement of bioreactors and the use of real wastewater from municipal, industrial or hospital effluents. From this perspective, several studies have focused on the use of whole cell Basidiomycota fungi, especially T.

In addition, it is also necessary to evaluate not only the capability to remove PhACs, but also the ability to produce a consistent COD and toxicity reduction of the resulting effluents, as well as the capability of the fungus to coexist with autochthonous microorganisms present in the current biological systems.

In some of these studies, a toxicity reduction has also been achieved; however, no comparisons on the efficiency on the reduction of COD in relation to conventional treatments were given. In addition, under non-sterilized conditions the introduced fungus was displaced by the native fungal and bacterial population Badia-Fabregat et al.

Although T. For example, heterogeneous catalytic processes have been described with P. The possibility of releasing white rot fungi and oxidative nanoparticles in the environment constitutes one of the advantages of having a practical system to be applied. Likewise, in the same model, the biotransformation of carbamazepine in liquid culture has been compared with solid-state fermentation on lignocellulosic substrate by evaluating the metabolic products. The results revealed that the metabolic pathways differed in both cases, indicating the generation of two metabolites in submerged fermentation and 24 metabolites in solid-state fermentation, some of which being more toxic than the parent compound Golan-Rozen et al.

Thus, it is important to consider that the environmental conditions have a vital influence on the degradation of the PhACs, since LME are inducible by different factors. However, these inductors-linked degradation could have an economic negative impact in real application as well as consequences in the operational conditions for instance release of dark pigments. The use of whole cell biotransformation has the advantage that all the fungal mechanisms enzymatic or not could take part in the process.


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For example, it was observed that the use of whole cell of Phoma sp. However, the filamentous growth could have operational problems associated clogging, fouling and problems for biomass separation. Thus, the current approach of the use of fungi is to establish the best conditions for the degradation of PhACs in real wastewater and under environmental conditions, as well as to find a profitable balance of the costs of the operation systems implemented in each case. The possibility to avoid the purification step could reduce costs and improve the adaptability; however, in some cases, high amounts of crude extract should be employed to achieve desirably high rates of conversion.

The crude extract containing manganese peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was evaluated in the elimination of tetracycline and oxytetracycline with removal rates of However, the use of purified enzymes allows a better control of the process and high rates of conversion of the compound in question. Several examples showed high rates of effectiveness of transformation after short reaction times with single enzymes of 10—60 min.